Publications | 2013

Kami Ways in Nationalist Territory

Kami Ways in Nationalist Territory

Shinto Studies in Prewar Japan and the West

Contributeur : Jean-Pierre Berthon
Bernhard Scheid (ed.)
Wien,  Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, , 277 p.
Shinto is often regarded as Japan’s indigenous religion retaining archaic elements of animism and nature worship. At the same time, Shinto is sometimes seen as nothing else than a nationalistic political ideology. After all, in 1868 Japan turned into a modern nation state and worship at Shinto shrines became a national cult. This so-called State Shinto was eventually abolished under the Allied Occupation in 1946 but the historical links between Shinto and Japanese nationalism led to an ambiguous evaluation of Shinto not only at the popular level but also at the level of scientific research. The present volume comprises eight essays by leading experts of Japanese intellectual history from Japan, Europe, and the USA who tackle this issue from the point of view of research history: What is the impact of State Shinto on Shinto research before and after the Second World War? How did Japanese and international scholars contribute and/or react to the ideological framework of Japanese nationalism? How did nationalist discourses of other countries (in particular German National Socialism) influence the representation of Shinto? As each essay addresses these issues from a specific angle, it becomes clear that there never was just one ideology of State Shinto. Moreover, the emphasis on Shinto ritual by the political authorities weakened the significance of academic research of Shinto as a tool of propaganda. Regarding the concept of Shinto proper, the impact of modern, “westernized” religious studies seems at least as important as traditional, “nativist” approaches. Dans cet ouvrage collectif, un article de Jean-Pierre Berthon “The Ethnographer, the Scholar, and the Missionary: French Studies on Shinto at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century” p. 179-202.

ISBN : 978-3-7001-7400-4
EHESS
CNRS
UMR 8173 Chine Corée Japon

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Confucianism in Modern Japan

Conference - Jeudi 18 mai 2017 - 11:00Conférence de Takahiro NAKAJIMA, Professeur à l’Université de Tôkyô, professeur invité à l'EHESS en mai 2017, dans le cadre du séminaire collectif du Centre de recherches sur le Japon.In the process of modernization in Japan, Confucianism played an important role to educate modern intellectuals. Mishima Chūshū was a founder of Nishōgakusha, in which Confucianism mainly based upon modern Yōmeigaku as well as modern law influenced by French law were taught. It was not an institute of traditional Confucian education, but a modern institute for modern scholarship. Natsume Sōseki who was one of the alumni of Nishōgakusha and became the first national novelist in modern Japan was deeply influenced by Mishima and his teaching of Confucianism. Nakae Chōmin who was a representative Yōmeigaku scholar and a translator of Jean-Jacques Rousseau was also impacted by Mishima. By focusing on the influence to students such as Sōseki and Chōmin, I would like to figure out the overlook of Confucian Education at Nishōgakusha and put it in a wider context of Meiji Education. Then I turn to think of philosophy of Mishima himself, especially focusing on his “doctrine of the unification of moral righteousness and profit” 義利合一論, which supported Japanese capitalism from the ideological point of view in tandem with Shibusawa Eiichi. As a conclusion, I would like to sketch one aspect of Confucian education in Modern Japan not as a simple reactionary conservatism, but as a modern device of Japanese modernity.

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